How to Move to Canada

Canada Border

Since Rom moved here to Canada, we are often asked about the immigration experience. He has been asked by his UK friends, “How can I get into Canada?” Since going through the process, we’ve learned a lot about immigration, and about what people think it should be like.

Governments and everyday folks obviously view things differently. A typical immigrant, from the government point of view, is a skilled worker who comes to Canada to fill a labour shortage, and perhaps applies to bring his family to Canada later. The system is set up for people like this, who are treated as “economic units.” In real life, a more typical aspiring immigrant is someone who has visited Canada as a tourist, as a student, or as a temporary worker, has developed friendships or a love interest, and has “bonded” with Canada! She realizes she would be happy to start over in Canada, and only later finds out about admissibility.

A lot of dreams end there because she can’t find a stream under which she can apply. Maybe she is unable to address a serious issue such as a long-ago criminal conviction, or a significant health condition. Either of those will stop an application.

After long and sometimes bitter discussions with others who have immigrated (or attempted to), I find there are three common perceptions:

  1. I’m a good citizen and a good worker. Why does Canada make it so hard to move here?
  2. I have a relative or a boyfriend/girlfriend in Canada. Why can’t they sponsor me?
  3. I’m in Canada now with a temporary visa. I should be able to stay.

If only we lived in a world in which countries opened their borders to anyone who is Demonstrably Nice and Means Well; then we would have true freedom 🙂

This could be you in Canada!

This could be you in Canada!

Here are most of the ways you can get permanent residency in Canada:

  • Be sponsored as a refugee because you have a fear of persecution in your home country
  • Be sponsored by a spouse, partner, parent, child or grandchild (spouse/partner and minor child sponsorships are fast-tracked;  the number of applications for parents and grandparents is limited each year)
  • Intend to begin a start-up (business) with guaranteed funding from a Canadian investor
  • Get a job offer and have a work permit issued to you
  • Be skilled in a profession for which there is a shortage of workers in Canada or one of its provinces, and get fast-tracked
  • Be a world class athlete or performer, or a self-employed farmer (!)
  • Have worked in Canada as a home caregiver of children or persons with high medical needs (live-in or live-out) for 24 months or more

There are other ways of working in Canada that don’t usually lead to residency, such as:

  • Being able to work when you are an international student in Canada
  • Coming in as a business person under a trade agreement such as NAFTA or GATS
  • Temporary visas for exotic dancers, escorts and erotic massage workers have been phased out

The catch is, if someone comes to Canada as a tourist or a student or to visit a friend, she may not have the specific skills needed to apply for a work permit, and may not be in a relationship with a Canadian that will lead to sponsorship. A man in good health is likely to get a job offer; a woman is more likely to seek out a relationship or accept work as a home caregiver.

You can see from the list that some of these streams are for applicants who are in Canada now (temporarily) while others require you to apply from outside the country. This is a massive cost issue. If you are waiting to move to another country, you can’t maintain your roots in your home country, and feel settled, and work there – or at least not for long. You will be travelling back and forth to Canada at great expense to check out your options for places to live and employment. But you can’t just show up in Canada and stay until you get permanent residency – you have to meet the criteria and get some sort of temporary visa (visitor, work, etc.) – which will then expire and make you go back “home” while you are still awaiting the outcome. Furthermore, you or your sponsor have to prove you can afford all the application fees, and to support yourself or your partner. Meanwhile, you are not eligible for any social safety nets. So embarking on this process is a Really Big Deal! (Not to even mention that you are leaving your home country and your loved ones, in some cases forever).

If anyone reading this is actually thinking of coming to Canada, please visit the real Canadian government immigration website and read it thoroughly. There are hundreds of look-alike websites which look semi-official. Most of them are trying to sell the services of immigration lawyers, which are rarely needed. The whole process can be completed without professional help if you have good communication skills in English or French.

Talking with immigrants to Canada and asking for their advice has its pros and cons. The law and procedures change often, and you can easily be led astray by outdated information. But, their encouragement might be just what is needed!

You can probably guess I am pro-immigration. Canada is sparsely populated and not able to respond quickly to changes in labour market demand. When we realize there is a shortage of workers in an area, it takes years to direct students to that career path. Such is the case now for auditors and physiotherapists! Meanwhile, there are professionals elsewhere who are willing to work in Canada. Sadly, there are jobs in Canada that no one wants, like picking crops. Hard work and low pay – which others are happy to do. Exploitation?


Did you know that the vast majority of immigrants to Canada are from the US and the UK?

Rom’s story in brief: He visited Canada for the first time in 2008 order to meet me, after we developed an online friendship. Three months later, I visited him in the UK. We decided we wanted to be together as a couple, and that it would make more sense for us if Rom were to live in Canada. It was difficult at that time to establish that we were partners without living together, and it would have been possible to live together only 6 months in Canada with a visitor visa, which would not have allowed Rom to work. At that time the waiting list for a skilled worker permit was up to 8 years; now there is an express program for desirable professions. Rom could have attempted to get a series of 6-month visitor visas, but besides the no-work issue, he would have had to go back to the UK each time to reapply. These situations are also tricky in terms of health insurance, etc. (Recently the system has changed to allow partners waiting in Canada to get open work permits.)  All things considered, we decided that marriage was a reasonable option! So we visited each other 4 more times that year, trying to limit our separations to two months at a time. Immediately after our wedding in Canada, Rom returned to the UK and I applied to sponsor him. It was a simple process (relatively speaking) and he received his new status in 4 months. The time from our first meeting until the time he landed in Canada as a permanent resident was 18 months. (Rom is an IT worker, and if he were applying now, he probably would have qualified for Express Entry).

I realize it is not for everyone to “land” a spouse or partner to immigrate, but sometimes it works out that way 🙂

Finally, there are those heart-wrenching stories in the news about lovely, deserving people being turfed out of Canada. Everyone has an opinion. In theory, so many people are waiting for their applications to be processed that no one should be allowed to jump the queue. In real life, humanitarian reasons are ever so compelling.

Let’s look at 3 high-profile cases I’ve read about:


Sanja Pecelj came to Nova Scotia in 2000, on a temporary work visa, and was employed at a peacekeeping training centre. She feared returning to Kosovo because, with her new work experience, she would be considered a political dissident. She applied for refugee status. Her fear of persecution was not deemed legitimate. She claimed sanctuary in a church, where the clergy and members supported her for 441 days of appeals and waiting.

Sergio and Linda

Sergio Rojas (from Mexico) and his partner Linda Martinez (from Nicaragua) moved to Canada with their son, now 7. While here, they had another son, now 3, with serious medical issues. The parents and older son are not eligible to remain in Canada. The younger is a Canadian citizen and is entitled to medical care. The whole family wants to stay.

Kurt and Leaf

An American couple, Kurt Andresen and Leaf Kraft, have lived in Nova Scotia for 6 years and have received seasonal work permits for the past 5 years. Kurt was a former international student in Canada. Their employer says they are indispensable but can’t offer them full-time, year-round work. The employer has not agreed to cover the cost of the required labour market impact study and will not pay their health care premiums. The couple and their employer wants them to stay; the government will not repeatedly renew seasonal work permits and the couple was forced to leave.

I would love to hear your stories, and I can probably answer a pretty wide range of questions about the Canadian immigration process. Does it sound similar to your country’s?

Of course you know that I am only a blogger and cannot provide any legitimate legal advice!

P.S. Rom says: If you are in Canada as a permanent resident, why not go on to get your citizenship?!

NOTE: I am currently unable to comment on any Blogger sites. Blogger writers, I am still reading your posts!


  1. PK

    Thanks, this was a helpful article, about 5 years ago I strongly considered moving to Canada, but it turned out they didn’t have a shortage for people in my profession. 😦

    • A lot of people in that situation come to Canada anyway, knowing they can’t legally work in their own profession, then they overstay and hope it will all work out. It is somewhat possible to do this, by getting a job offer outside your own field of work, or getting a temporary work visa to do an unpleasant but necessary job (like in-home childcare or farm work!) but ultimately, most of them end up having to leave after spending several years trying to wrangle their way in.

  2. Oh my, this is something I briefly considered blogging about. Australia just recently aired the third ‘season’ of “Go back to where you came from” about immigration. Namely, there are thoughts that migrants should wait in line, no queue jump, not arrive on boat (namely boats of poor integrity, liable to sink etc). There’s so many issues – they’ll take ‘our’ jobs, they’ll not support themselves, and get government benefits, and they might be terrorists. Or they might just be economic migrants <- I seldom see why this should be used to argue against migration!

    Anyhow, I personally think Australia should accept more migrants – refugees and otherwise. Like Canada, we are a large country, and whilst some city centres aren't currently well enough equipped for the population, it's impossible to say we have 'no' space. Given Australia was formed from migrants for England, it's hard to think any 'white' person has a right to decide who is good enough to join our country, or has our culture – the dominant culture here is of migrants!

    On a tangent – I would love to move to France. But like moving to Canada, it's not simple. It takes perseverance, for sure! And with the language difference, it's more challenging, particularly in the recent economic climate, to find work, especially as I'd like to have a skilled job, rather than 'anything' that may pay the bills. IN some regards, I do really think migration should be more open than it currently is.

    • Conservative Canadians have some of the same fears about immigration, but our climate is so inhospitable that we don’t have people dropping in! We don’t share a border with any developing countries, and we are not near any islands that have citizens wanting to leave! When people from other countries seek to start life over, sometimes we get spillover of those who would like to move to the US, but it’s even harder to get in, so they settle for Canada. Others prefer Canada for the system of govt and social services, but find the climate too hard to handle. Also, when they are shopping for a way to get in, they may have to choose a province that has particularly harsh winters, because they have the labour shortages.

  3. EcoCatLady

    Very interesting. What about Americans retiring in Canada? If you can show that you have the money to support yourself, do they allow that?

    I can’t help but think that if Donald Trump somehow manages to win the election in 2016, there are gonna be several million Americans seeking asylum up there! 🙂 (only partly joking…)

    • Juhli

      I was saying the same thing to my husband yesterday!

    • Hi Cat, Interestingly, it is not possible for someone from any other country to buy or rent property in Canada and be completely self-supporting. The only visa that would apply to them is a visitor (tourist) visa, which expires in 6 months. I know that lots of other countries give residency to people who buy property or invest in the local economy, but Canada doesn’t. Same is true of the US, of course. Canadians can only leave Canada for 180 days before they lose their health care and other Canadian benefits, hence the “snowbird” phenomenon of Canadians wintering in Arizona and Florida. Up here we are shuddering at Trump’s candidacy but we can’t act superior because look at Rob Ford! (Thankfully he never ran for prime minister…)

  4. I believe you about the greatest number of immigrants coming from the US and UK.

    • I think it seems easier to move from one predominantly white, English-speaking country to another. I always grimace when I hear someone from the UK or the US say they were glad to leave their home country because it is “not the same any more,” i.e. too many immigrants!

  5. In the Great Post War Escape From England, my father’s family immigrated to Australia, while his aunt left for Canada. My mother nearly went to Canada too. My uncle, her brother, was looking for a new start away from Germany and brought home to his wife brochures from the Canadian and Aust governments sprouking for migrants. My aunt chose Aust because the brochure had beaches and she’d seen a beach once at the North Sea and loved it.

    My mother was a permanent resident for nearly 30 years before taking out citizenship. I think it is not an easy step to take. Her case was complicated in that for a while being married to my father gave her voting and citizenship rights. While he was a Pommie, that made him an Australian citizen at the time. Laws have changed now for English migrants.

    Most overstayers of visas are actually British. Though Australians seem to have this fear of Asylum seekers.

    What calls Americans to move across the border to live rather than visit?

    • Rom would say that if you are a PR first, becoming a citizen is easy; you just have to apply and take a quiz (similar in style to a drivers’ learning permit test!) I actually have no idea why anyone from the US moves to Canada. I think just the usual – studied here, know someone here, romance here. In the 60s and 70s there were a lot of conscientious objectors from the Vietnam War, but there has been no draft since then. Even though when I lived in the US, a lot of people joked they would like to leave to avoid Bush politics, actually doing it is a big step — getting used to the tax rate/semi-socialism and the weather!

      • For my mother taking citizenship felt like renouncing part of her identity, her self. She couldn’t have dual citizenship. Maybe it is different because it was a different, less global era,, when she came. And she was coming to a country whose language she didn’t speak. And there was that whole “Don’t mention the war” thing. And maybe when she came it wasn’t so easy to get back (immigrants came by a boat trip, not plane) and she may have originally thought it was an adventure and she would originally return but then was stuck with Aussie kids and now Aussie grandkids and soon Aussie great grandkids And then she found she was Aussie herself. And maybe then the difference between Germany and Australia was bigger than the difference between the UK and Canada now.

        I don’t know if I could renounce my citizenship but I could get a British passport and if I hadn’t met Mr S, my plan was always to love for several years in England. But love stopped that.

      • Oh, renouncing citizenship, what a terrible thing! Canada doesn’t make you do that. You get dual.

  6. Terri

    Gosh, I can’t express how much I enjoyed reading this. Very informative. I love learning about other countries first hand from regular citizens. Thank you so much for this post. I enjoyed the comments other made here too.

    You are not kidding about Canada being very serious who they let into the country, even if you are just passing through.

    In 1992, I sold my house, car, most everything else. Bought a van with a bed and ice box. My daughter took a long road trip from the state of Georgia to Alaska and spent the summer living out of the van. A more common thing now, much less common in 1992. I haven’t heard of single moms doing this.

    We traveled across the U.S. to Montana and entered Alberta. I was shocked at all I encountered at the border. It was long before the internet and I had not researched all that would be involved. I was however prepared to show legal documents like ownership title to the van, birth certificates, divorce decree and specifically that I had legal custody of my 7 year old daughter. Brandy, our dog was traveling with us, so I had her vet records showing vaccinations up-to-date just in case.

    We crossed at Hwy 89 near Glacier National Park (U.S.) and Waterton Lakes National Park on the Canadian side. State of Montana into Alberta.

    We showed up at border crossing in an older full sized van, single mom with child and dog. We were freshly showered but had been camping for a month, so we might not have looked as tame as they are used to seeing! I showed my drivers license. A man in uniform comes over to the window with specific instructions for me to pull into the garage area. I follow his instructions. We were met by 4 other uniformed customs officers who were not making small talk nor welcoming me to Canada.

    I contained the dog for them as requested. My daughter and I had to leave the van and go inside to what seemed like an interrogation room. I was asked a lot of questions. So was my daughter who was pretty scared at this point.

    I think their first suspicion was that I was kidnapping my daughter. They questioned her about her dad, where he lived and if he knew she was with me. Knowing that she was scared, I attempted to tell her it was OK and she could answer the questions. I was sharply reprimanded and told they were speaking to her and I was to be quiet.

    Next they asked to see documents. I showed them the folder I had. Then they asked my daughter, “What if we call your father? Will he know you are taking her into Canada?” I chimed in and said, “Yes. He knows where she is. We call him every Wednesday to let him know where we.” Again, I was told to shut up. My daughter was about to cry so I didn’t think she sounded convincing. (I was nervous about all this, because her dad did know we were traveling and where we were, but he was not happy about our educational summer trip. So I feared he would indicate something if they called him.)

    Next I was questioned extensively about finances. They had to see credit cards, cash, travelers checks, and I had to tell them numbers regarding how much money I had. They said one of my gas credit cards couldn’t be used in Canada. I told them I had called the company and there were gas stations in specific towns that honored the card which I think surprised them that I knew. They wanted to know how I would pay for mechanical repairs if the van broke down in Canada. It was very clear they did not want to let me into Canada without proving I could pay our expenses. I later learned that while being questioned, other border personnel were searching through the van.

    After many questions and answers, I was able to convince them I could pay our expenses while traveling through Canada. Finally, they let us go back to the van and up the highway we went.

    We went into Alaska west of Dawson Creek, Yukon. Five weeks later, we left Alaska at Beaver Creek, Yukon. We re-entered the U.S. in Seattle, WA. We had no problem going into Alaska, probably because we were U.S. citizens. We had no problem getting back into Canada on our return trip.

    Thinking back on it, I’m surprised they let us into Canada at all given I had no formal residence. All I have was a post office box in the city I previously owned a home in. A friend would collect my mail and send it to me General Delivery while I was traveling. A lot has changed since 1992 and much more information is available now.
    This is a very long comment. Please feel free to delete it if it is an inappropriate length. Thanks.

    • Hi Terri, What a grand story! And a big adventure for you. I am surprised, too, that they let you travel through Canada at all, without a permanent address to return to. Border crossings by land are so different now that you need a passport to travel between the US and Canada. I worked in the US for 6 years on a NAFTA visa. Getting the first NAFTA visa was OK, but actually moving into the country with all my possessions was difficult. The administrative work to import my own vehicle into the country was mind-boggling! The NAFTA visa had to be renewed annually, so I would drive up to the US border crossing nearest my old home in Canada (so I could continue driving to see relatives on the same trip), and submit all my paperwork in person, and get it stamped. I had a bad experience when I went through a different border crossing on one occasion. Like you experienced, they barked at my kid who was really scared. They told me the other (friendly) border crossing was doing the visas wrong and I would have to return the next day to re-apply. Fortunately they could not prevent me from continuing on to Canada (since I am a Canadian citizen) so I did, and travelled to my favourite border crossing, where they were as nice as ever, and I almost kissed their feet 🙂

      P.S. You did a great job bringing all that documentation and doing the research you did!

      • My recent visit to Canada was via bus NY state – and I was aghast we had to disembark, and remove all luggage, pass customs and immigration and then reload. It seems so bizarre, compared to parts of Europe. All was well as a holidaying Aussie though, so long as the Americans didn’t know i partly did it to get to Cuba – and flying there was full of Canadian side interrogation!

      • Yes, anyone used to borderless Europe would find the Canada or US borders very strict!

  7. Fiona

    Very interesting topic, Dar! It makes me a big regretful that we ‘missed’ our opportunity to move to Toronto back in 2009. My husband’s work had recently opened offices in Canada and had intentionally employed Canadian-only managers in the offices, who then authorised sponsorship of some of the Australian staff to come out and set up systems and training, staying for 2 years with the possibility of permanence. I know the offices were mainly funded by Australian investment but I can’t remember now if there were also Canadian investors involved.

    We were all set to move to Toronto but at the final moment, we were sent to Sydney for a different management role. The company is still going in Canada but not as strongly as its branches in other countries. There are still days when I say to my husband, ‘Do you want to approach them and see if there’s any opportunities to go over there?’

    Realistically though, after just living interstate, I know we would have greatly struggled with the massive distance from family and friends in Australia. It’s such a huge thing to move away from your home and everyone you’ve ever known. Rom made a brave move (clearly very worthwhile, though!)

    • Interesting! When Rom came over, Link was still in school and I couldn’t fathom pulling Link out of school and starting over in a new country. Very concerned about Link’s opportunities for school and future work there. I also researched employment for librarians in the UK and the labour market seemed very bad. Finally, it looked impossible to ever afford a house in the UK. I really am grateful to Rom for coming to Canada. I don’t think I could have done the same. I have lived far from home though (even further than the distance between Halifax NS and London UK actually!)

  8. Fiona

    A separate tangent, but it’s worth noting that immigration is an incredibly fraught topic in Australia at the moment and it’s interesting to see the comparison with Canada.

    One of our biggest political issues in recent years has been the issue of ‘stopping the boats’ – people who arrive in often perilous, rickety boats from Indonesia or other South-East Asian countries via people smugglers and claim asylum. At one point, there were over 12,000 people a year arriving by boat, increasingly dramatically by the month. Our current PM came to power partly on an anti-immigration platform. We have a system of extremely contentious Immigration Detention centres, where even young children are detained.

    I listen to the French news here and it’s very shocking to see the difference in attitude from the European media (so much more sympathetic) vrs Australian media.

    • I am relieved that Canada isn’t facing that situation (from the perspective of the migrants who face unbelievable risks). Do you really think the European media is sympathetic? What I read is that everyone wants France to step up policing and provide refugee camps so the migrants won’t go on to “bother” other EU countries. That being said, any country would find it difficult to absorb tens of thousands of asylum seekers. What to do?

      Just read your new post – thinking of you – all the best!

      • Fiona

        I think generally in Europe there’s still worry about migration as a bigger-picture issue…but not down to the individual level of resenting people on boats who are actually dying at sea. Australia has a ‘turn back’ policy where the coast guard will literally turn around boats at sea, irrespective of the consequences. People have hardened their hearts, with a ‘too bad for them, they shouldn’t have come’ attitude. The French media reports I’ve seen are highly concerned at footage of children and families at sea.

      • I’d agree, the reporting even in Australia re: Europe and refugees, seem to show more empathy and less suggestions of ‘permanent detention’ for asylum seekers. I hate that both political parties have the majority view by saying ‘stop the boats’ cause people are put at risk – but it’s not *just* that, it’s truly that they don’t want them to come and settle in Australia. So much so, there’s been news of the govt paying people smugglers to turn back, which is murky policy!

  9. Terri

    What a great discussion here.I ‘m enjoying everyone’s comments I am learning so much!
    Yes, it was a grand story and big adventure to live in a van for a summer and travel with small child, leave your home country not knowing much about where you were going or even if you would make it at all. Couldn’t have said it any better. It was a life-changing trip in many ways.

    The more I think about the situation this afternoon, the more I realize I was pretty lucky they let us pass through to Canada. We were held there for a long time, well over an hour. If they would have in called my daughter’s father, I strongly suspect he would have told the truth, which was yes he knew we were traveling and entering Canada, but was not happy about it. That would have blown the whole deal. If the border folks would have suggested he would have a hard time IF we decided to stay or got stranded, her father would have definitely protested. He really did not see our trip as an educational adventure and a life transition for me.

    I had no idea that there were “friendlier” border crossings and less friendlier ones. But that explains why it was so hard to get in and not hard the other three times we crossed borders.

    Later in life, I remarried. While on vacation to Lake Superior, we took my daughter and his daughter into Ontario to drive the circumference of Lake Superior. We went in at Grand Portage, MN/Thunder Bay, ON. I remember they kept us at the window for a while seemingly thinking about letting us go in. But they let us go without many questions. We didn’t have to show documents other than driver’s license. The kids were 15 and 14 as I recall.

    On both trips involving US and Canada entry, it was before required passports like now.

    It’s interesting that you experienced so much trouble relocating to the U.S. when you were working here as a result of NAFTA. It seems it would have been easier because of NAFTA. All this caused me to investigate. I see that the agreement allows and encourages temporary relocation but says nothing about permanent relocation into one of the three countries. Yes, I’ve heard relocating vehicles to another country can be daunting.

    It’s a very complicated situation to figure out a solution for so many people seeking asylum. I cannot begin to imagine how horrific the situation must be in their home countries. I’ve read about Australia’s policy to “turn back” and have a little info on the Mediterranean situation. 68,000 children, minors got into the U.S. from Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras last year (that’s not counting all those that came from Mexico). The ones that survived the journey some on foot and traveling alone without food, shelter and water through the desert were temporarily housed in shelters at the border. These shelters were severely lacking in supplying basic sanitation, food, etc. Then some were placed in homes in various U.S. cities. They will go through hearings and it’s my understanding they will be returned to the home countries. The U.S. appropriated $$ to help try and solve problems in their homeland. Wonder how that will turn out?? It’s staggering to imagine providing healthcare, creating schools, homes and support for these youngsters and all people seeking asylum worldwide. Yet it seems inhumane to return them. Agree with you, Dar, WHAT TO DO? The problem seems so big, I’d have to read 20 thick books to begin to grasp it’s complexity.

    Again, great discussion here. Thanks so much for posting this.

    • I have heard some awful stories such as some states making it illegal to “abet illegal immigration” by GIVING THE CHILDREN FOOD AND WATER!

      The “turn back” scenarios I read about are sickening. History will judge us. During World War 2, a ship of 900 Jewish refugees was turned away from Cuba, the US and Canada and had to return to Europe.

      THE NAFTA rules are unevenly applied. For example, if someone moves to Canada or Mexico to take a NAFTA job, their spouse or partner can get a work visa, but not so in the US.

      While I can’t picture world-wide unrestricted migration (yet?), there must be a better way?

  10. Ahhh well, you can probably guess my stance on immigration – also very definitely pro! Those stories you wrote about up there broke my heart. It was so hard for me to get to where I am today – with my foot firmly inside the door, but the rest of me to follow – that I have full sympathy and support for all others on this journey.

    • I think most of us who were born here forget what a short time ago our ancestors were newcomers. All it takes are one or two personal stories for most people to open their hearts. It’s different when you actually know someone at your work, church, neighbourhood, etc. experiencing difficulties getting here or staying here.

  11. Glad to hear Rom’s story was relatively quick and painless!

    Mr. G and I are pretty set on where we currently live so I’ve never looked into immigration policies anywhere else (or even the particulars of others coming to the US for that matter). But these stories do break my heart, especially when there are children involved. Becoming more tolerant in general is big here right now (focused mostly on accepting same-sex marriage and reducing racism) but hopefully that will spill over to immigration policy as well.

  12. Pingback: The Where of It All | An Exacting Life

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